Super Protection

Output Short Circuit Current Limit in a Super Regulator

A voltage regulator is designed to provide a fixed voltage to any load. Inherently this means it must provide any current through that load to satisfy Ohm's Law of I = V/R. As R approaches zero, for example when the output is shorted to ground, for a fixed V then I approaches infinity. Thus the regulator output will, without some imposed current limit, attempt to provide infinite current. Physics takes over and typically the output device vaporizes its internal wiring or fuses the device into a short circuit and some other component burns.

The Standard Solution

Monolithic voltage regulators typically use a current limiting technique as seen in the schematic here:

current limiting circuit
Note: this circuit was previously called a foldback limit but in fact is not one. A foldback circuit not only limits current in a short circuit but also reduces its value. Sorry for any confusion!

The small resistor in the emitter circuit of the output device is used to sense the current flowing to the load and, when current is high enough the voltage across it turns on the limit transistor. This limit transistor then steals drive current from the output device, which limits output current.

You can see a fundamental limitation to minimum output impedance is the sense resistor used in the current limiter. The impedance can be no lower than the sense resistor, which is typically between 0.1 and 1 Ohm

The Innovative Solution

Belleson has developed an ingenious solution to this problem which does not require a sense resistor in the emitter circuit. It instead senses a voltage difference internal to the regulator, thus allowing the emitter to connect directly to the load. It would be great if we could illustrate with a schematic this clever innovation but it is, unfortunately, proprietary information. Yet we can definitely say the speed, dynamics, stability, low noise and low output impedance performance of Superpower are not compromised at all until the protection circuit begins to limit the current.

There's always a compromise, what is it?

OK, you're right. There is a compromise, yet it's a small one and it's not at the output. The SPL drop-out voltage increases to about 4V at 2A vs. 1V at 2A for the unprotected SPJ.

How Does Protection Compare To Monolithics?

Monolithic regulators have, in addition to a short circuit current limiter, a thermal limiter. Superpower does not have a thermal limiter. This means under short circuit conditions the output device must be heat sinked adequately to dissipate power of Vin * Isc without overheating the output device.

Also, Superpower maximum short circuit current varies due to parameter variations in the component used to limit the current.


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The Industry Standard SPX

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  • 5V to 30V output
  • World's lowest output impedance
  • Superb ripple rejection (135dBV)
  • Instant step response
  • Extreme low noise
  • TO-220 footprint
  • No thermal pad needed!

High Voltage!

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  • Variable output 5V to 450V
  • Up to 500mA output current
  • Super low 0.5V drop-out at 100mA
  • Small TO-220 footprint!
  • Low output impedance
  • Fast response
  • Low noise

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SPHP—1000 Watts for your music server!

SPHP, a 10A Superpower with adjustable output voltage from 5V to 100V

  • Same low noise
  • Same blazing step response
  • Same great ripple rejection.
Just lots more current and much higher output voltage. For sale on our order page See more information in the data sheet here.

Build a power supply

A PCB and parts list for building a compact dual positive or positive+negative power supply are on this new page.

Transformer Calculator!

Use the Belleson Transformer Calculator to calculate the minimum Vrms voltage of a transformer for your Superpower based supplies.

It's Official

We're proud to announce the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has granted patent 8,294,440 to the Superpower design.

Use the Superpower regulator in...

  • Headphone amps
  • DACs
  • Buffers
  • Clocks and reclockers
  • Preamps
  • Microphone preamps
  • Phono stages
  • Phono motors
  • Tube preamps and input stages
  • Line powered guitar effects boxes
  • Anywhere an extremely clean, quiet, dynamic power source is needed